Baletti koulukunnat ja metodit: Uudet tyylisuunnat

Baletti koulukunnat ja metodit: Uudet tyylisuunnat

Usealle katsojalle baletti herättää mielikuvia voimakkaista miehistä tiukoissa trikoo asuissa, ja kauniista ballerinoista, jotka suorittavat painovoimaa uhmaavia askelkuvioita varvastossujen varassa, vaaleanpunaisiin röyhelö hameisiin pukeutuneina. Tämä kuvaakin hyvin klassista balettia, ja sen alalajia romanttista balettia. Niiden molempien juuret ovat syvällä perinteissä, ja hyväksi havaitut tyylisäännöt ja tanssi metodit hallitsevat esitysten kulkua. Tämä ei kuitenkaan ole ainoa oikea yleisesti hyväksytty baletti taiteen muoto, vaan neoklassinen ja nykybaletti tyylit ovat ottaneet huomattavan määrän lava tilaa viime vuosien aikana.

Neoklassinen baletti

Neoklassinen baletti sai alkunsa 1900-luvulla, jolloin useat balettiryhmät lähtivät karsastamaan klassisen baletin ylenpalttisia lavasteita, ja romanttisen ajan jakson rönsyilevää tarinan kerrontaa. Tyylilajin uranuurtajia oli Amerikassa vaikuttanut George Balanchine, joka oli käynyt baletti opintonsa tunnetussa Venäjän Keisarillisessa balettikoulussa. Balanchinen ura lähti varsinaisesti käyntiin hänen toimiessaan koreografina Ballets Russe tanssiryhmälle. Jo ennen neoklassisdeen tyylisuuntaan sitoutumistaam, hän lähti kehittämään tanssijoilleen uusia asentoja ja niiden tuomaa liikeen vapautta. Ajan myötä Balanchinen tyyli kehittyi klassisesta tyylistä eroavaksi, ja varsinaisesti hänen oma koulukuntansa lähti käyntiin miehen muutettua Amerikkaan 1933. Neoklassinen tyylisuunta keskittyy tanssijaan urheilijana, ja se on huomattavan fyysistä verrattuna klassiseen balettiin. Tanssijoiden liikkeet ovat vähemmän rajoitettuja, ja koreografit käyttävät usein hyväkseen klassisessa baletissa kaihdettuja sisäänpäin käännettyjä jalkateriä, nopeampaa rytmiä, ja klassista balettia korkeampaa energiatasoa.

Neoklassinen balletia

Neoklassinen baletti kaihtaa yleensä klassisen baletin tarinankerrontaa, ja tanssi tapahtuu usein yhdessä näytöksessä. Lavalla nähtävät lavasteet, sekä tanssijoiden asut ovat yksinkertaisia, ja tutu hameiden sijasta naistanssijat ovat usein pukeutuneita yksinkertaisiin leotard asuihin. Tanssin tekniikka ja tyyli ovat sulavuutta tärkeämpiä, ja esitykset ovat usein aggressiivisia atleettisia suorituksia, jotka jättävät yleisön pidättämään henkeään tanssijan kiitäessä lavan läpi. Yhteistä klassiselle baletille on kova kärkisten varvastossujen käyttö, neoklassinen baletti ei niinkään hylkää klassisia metodeita, kuin kierrättää ne omaksi edukseen.

Monipuolinen nykybaletti

Siinä missä neoklassinen baletti on syvälle sidottu klassisen baletin perus ideologiaan ja sääntöihin, baletin uusin muotio, nykybaletti rikkoo usein kaikkia mahdollisia sääntöjä. Nykybaletti ottaa klassisen baletin lisäksi vaikutteita modernista tanssista ja neoklassisesta baletista, mutta antaa vallan esityksen sisällöstä ja kulusta täysin koreografille ja taiteelliselle johtajalle. Tanssijoiden liikkeet käyttävät hyväkseen baletin perinteitä, mutta liikkuvat usein täysin uusille alueille.

moderni baletti

Tanssijoiden koulutus on usein klassisia tanssijoita monipuolisempaa, sillä koreografioiden vaatimat liikkeet eroavat toisistaan huomattavasti, ja asettavat vartalolle klassista balettia laajemmat vaatimukset. Nykybaletti käyttää hyväkseen klassista ja neoklassista tyylisuuntaa enemmän ylävartalon liikkeitä, mikä asettaa huomattavia vaatimuksia tanssijan selkärangalle ja ylävartalon lihaksille. Eroista huolimatta nykybaletti ryhmät vaativat tanssijoiltaan klassista koulutusta, sillä modernit taidot on helpompi rakentaa klassiselle pohjalle.Nykybaletti eroaa usein visuaaliselta ilmeeltään huomattavasti klassisesta baletista, ja tyylisuunta antaa huomattavan määrän vapautta taiteelliselle johtajalle ja koreografille. Tanssijat voivat tanssia kovakärkisillä varvastossuilla, pehmeissä balettitossuissa, tai vaikkapa paljain jaloin, riippuen koreografian vaatimuksista. Standardi vaatimuksia ei aseteta myöskään lavasteille, tanssijoiden asuille, tai esityksen musiikille. Nykybaletin tanssijat saattavat olla pukeutuneita farkkuihin ja t-paitoihin, kiitäen nopeasti lavan läpi paljain jaloin hyppien. Musiikkina kuullaan rokkia, poppia, ja rap musiikkia, ja katsoja tunnistaa tiettyjen koreografien esitykset helposti toisistaan tanssijoiden tyyliä tarkkaillen.Useimmat nykypäivänä tuotetuista uusista baleteista voidaan laskea hyvällä omallatunnolla nykybaleteiksi, sillä kuka taiteellinen johtaja voisi vastustaa oman leimansa antamista teokselle. Klassisen tarinan kerronnan eskapismia kaipaavien kannattaa suunnata perinteisten tarinoiden, kuten Joutsenlammen ja Pähkinänsärkijän pariin.

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